Study premises, Saint-Martin-Laguépie, its Castle
A little history
Fascé contre-fascé Or and Gules of four pieces, with eight cords knotted from one to the other
The origins of SAINT MARTIN LAGUEPIE (and of LAGUEPIE) are very old: A group of linguists studied the localities, and the analysis of the toponomy reveals names whose roots go back to prehistory (pre-Celtic background), protohistory ( Celtic funds), antiquity (Latin), and in the High Middle Ages (German). Of course, most of the words are in Occitan, Classical or Modern. Remains of a tile oven from the Gallo-Roman period (3rd-4th century) have been unearthed on the village plateau, Sommard sector. In addition, the traces of an old church (Notre Dame Church) built in 825 are attested on the banks of the Viaur river. At the confluence of the two rivers Aveyron and Viaur, at the limit of Tarn and Tarn-et-Garonne, the old Barony brought together within it, on the Tarn side, the current town of SAINT MARTIN LAGUEPIE and on the Tarn et Garonne side the town by LAGUEPIE. The barony was dismembered in 1790, St Martin attached to the Department of Tarn, and Laguépie, first to the Department of AVEYRON, then in 1808, to Tarn et Garonne. SAINT MARTIN is a terroir with a tumultuous and rich past.
The castle, witness to historical facts
The castle overlooks the Viaur river. Its construction predates the year 1000, like many fortified castles in the area. The first written record of the Lord of La Guèpie, Raymond Bernard, dates back to 1175.
The Albigensian Crusade
The Albigensian Crusade takes place in the south of France, from 1208 to 1229. The objective of the papacy and the lords of the North of France is twofold: for the clergy (at its head Pope Innocent III), to achieve the eradication of the Cathar religious current which is growing, coming dangerously to compete with Catholicism in these southern lands; for the Lords of the North, attracted by the territories of the Langue d’Oc, led by Simon de Montfort, to extend their suzerain power.
The region was then the scene of a war, the most famous episodes of which were: the sack of Béziers, the siege of Toulouse and the crusade of the children (or shepherds) in Castelsarrasin. During the Crusade in 1212, Simon de Montfort besieged the castle, set it on fire, leveled it with the village. From 1218 to 1222, following new attacks which several times completely destroyed the Castle and the village, Count Raymond VII of Toulouse decided to found the current bastide of Cordes sur Ciel, the Mecca of Catharism. But the strategic position of the site promptly prompted the Count of Toulouse, then Lord of La Guépie, to rebuild the castle and the village. After these periods of conflicts and acts of war, begins the Inquisition, whose leaders (Bernard Gui) have the mission to confuse the Cathar believers, to travel through the Albigensian, Rouergue and Quercy, so that, from preaching to interrogation , Catharism is definitively eradicated from Occitan lands. However, it should be noted that in 1234 a Cathar family still lived in the village, and 10 years later, the precepts of this doctrine were even still taught there. By inheritance, in 1251, the castle goes to the daughter of Raymond VII, wife of Alphonse de Poitiers (brother of Louis IX), who exchanges it for the castle of Penne. Bernard de Penne becomes Lord of La Guèpie and then begins the dynasty of the Penne family, an ally of that of Gourdon, for about 3 centuries. La Guépie is then a barony, which extends its jurisdiction over four parishes: Saint Amans (current side of Laguépie); Saint Martin, Saint Pierre et Sommard (on the current side of St Martin). The parish of Saint Amans was administratively part of Guyenne, subdivision of Rouergue. The other three depended on the administration of Languedoc, a subdivision of the Albigensian. To differentiate them, they were called La Guepie en Rouergue (current Laguépie-82) and La Guepie d’Albigeois (St Martin Laguépie-81).
La Guepie, Free Town in the 14th century
In 1333, the Lord of La Guépie, Olivier de Penne, granted the inhabitants a charter of customs thus allowing the villagers to appoint six administrators who took the oath and loyalty to the suzerain: This charter of customs indicates the existence of the castel, of the “Viala” where the ovens, the mills, seigneurial or communal, the communal square, as well as the granting of markets and fairs, and the authorization of open hostels: so many clues revealing a place of economic exchange at this crossing point.
The hundred years war
The Hundred Years War ignites the South West, the Viaur becomes a natural border, a few hundred meters from the castle, between the kingdom of France and that of England. From 1337, the King of England claimed the crown of France, in a very degraded European context both in terms of health, due to successive famines and waves of the Black Death, and in economic terms, the sizes and tithes becoming more and more unbearable for the peasants and the cities. On October 24, 1360, the Treaty of Brétigny put an end to hostilities between the King of England and the King of France: Edward III renounced the title of King of France but obtained in full sovereignty, in particular Guyenne, Agenais, Limousin , Périgord, Quercy, in addition to the creation for his eldest son Edward, Prince of Wales, the principality of Aquitaine. Thus the castle of Saint Martin Laguépie was handed over to the English for about thirty years, until the son of John II, Charles V, whose Kingdom of France had lost a third of its area and his subjects, finally decides to break the agreement. In 1369, he set out to reconquer his lost provinces: the English armies could not defend them, and in 1388, the castle of Saint Martin was taken back from them. This conflict ended on August 29, 1475 with the signing of the Treaty of Picquigny by Louis XI of France and Edward IV of England.
The castle, this witness to the wars of religion
The village converted to Protestantism by its lord Jean de Melroux, a temple was built in 1561, and the church of Saint Amans destroyed. In 1579 an agreement was made between the inhabitants of the “city”, believers of both religions, which guaranteed the reciprocal safeguard of people and goods. But in retaliation for abuses in the surroundings attributed to Protestants, the village was attacked on August 1, 1592 by the Catholic league of the Duke of Joyeuse: He laid siege to the castle, which was again razed with the village and its lord killed . In 1598, the Edict of Nantes finally brought peace, and the lords remained Protestants. The brother of the assassinated baron once again raises the ruins of the castle and gives it a more residential appearance at the end of the 16th century.
The revolution marks the end of the castle
During the Revolution, the castle was looted by the inhabitants of the region who used it as a quarry, reusing the stones for their own constructions, materials that can be found in both villages. Its owner, Baron de Freissinet, a refugee in Switzerland, died in 1796. Inherited from his two sons Casimir and Louis. Casimir returned for the first time in 1827. He wanted to preserve the ruins of the cradle of his ancestors and had some work done. His brother Louis, in 1844, sold the castle to Raymond Maurel, but Casimir broke the sale and the castle was divided in two. Casimir keeps the ruins that the public can now visit, the rest is sold. In the 70s the castle deteriorates significantly: it is given to the town hall of St Martin Laguépie which maintains it and undertakes the necessary consolidation work.
THE NOTARIAT in LAGUEPIE and SAINT MARTIN LAGUEPIE
There were notaries there from the middle of the 12th century. The 13th century custom charters mention the notaries created by the Count of Toulouse. From a royal ordinance of 1304, the notary must submit the model of his manual signature when taking up his post. The decree of September 29, 1791 replaced the different types of seigneurial, royal and apostolic notaries by public notaries. This profession is still partly defined by the law of 25 Ventôse year XI (March 16, 1803). Authorized by the law of March 14, 1928 to deposit their archives in the departmental archives services, notaries have the obligation to deposit their minutes and their directories over 75 years old, now considered as public archives, freely available for consultation in the departmental archives. .
Me REGA's predecessors
The predecessors of Me REGA, referenced are:
- VILLARIS B. 1590-1591
- VILLARIS Jean 1652
- VILLARIS Pierre 1660-1667
- DELIPUY 1660-1661
- GARRIGUES 1680-1681
- VILLARIS Jean Pierre 1680-1696
- MOLINIER Henry 1733-1776
- VILLARIS Joseph 1762-1775
- LOUBERS Jean Philippe Nicolas 1770-1807
- GRANIER Jean 1790-1853
- MOLINIER Charles François Henry 1796-1818
- GRANIER Jean Jacques Paul Félix 1853-1900
- VERGNHES Louis Félix Germain 1900-1947
- VERGNHES Pierre 1947-1967
- BOURNAZEAU Henri Pierre 1967-1999
- MAZET Sylvain 2000- 2002
- REGA Jean-Christophe depuis 2002
This land of fighting, for a god, a king or freedom, remains today a land of exchanges, meetings of cultures, languages, and traditions. Close to Albi and Villefranche de Rouergue, the notarial office has developed expertise in private international law, at the heart of this region, where, in addition to local and national customers, an international community, enjoying a valued architectural environment, rub shoulders with each other, where the art of living in harmony with nature and the seasons becomes a major asset for those who want to get away from the noise of the city and its constraints.